As Plate & Shell Heat Exchangers gain acceptance in the process industry, many potential users are seeking validated performance data of the latest commercial plate technology so that they can be assured of adequate operation. HTRI, a leading source of process heat-transfer technology, is working with Vahterus to assess the PSHE performance for liquid-liquid and boiling service.
While standards have helped the refrigeration industry to improve and set safety requirements, the International Institute of Refrigeration is proposing a working group to enhance refrigeration safety.
Over the last 150 years, we have learned how to use a number of different refrigerants. The first refrigerants were ammonia, ethers, methyl chloride, air and CO2. Later, hydrocarbons emerged, and in 1930s we saw the first series of CFCs, mainly R-11 and R-12, emerging on the market, followed by HCFCs such as R-22 and R-502. Of those refrigerants that preceded CFCs, only ammonia remained on the mainstream market, with CO2 and the hydrocarbons disappearing. Ammonia was used in large industrial systems in many countries because it was very energy efficient.
Did you know that, with the help of the right financing options, an export business can offer buyers credit at competitive rates? These options include bills of exchange and deferred letters of credit.
Finnvera is a specialist financing company owned by the State of Finland and the official Export Credit Agency of Finland. One of Finnvera’s main goals is to improve the competitiveness of Finnish small and medium-sized export enterprises. Guarantees granted by Finnvera usually help a foreign buyer get financing with a longer repayment horizon and, in some cases, at better rates than those offered in the local private sector. This year, one of Finnvera’s main focus areas is to provide guidance on financial and risk management of export business for SMEs.