ITER is an international project that aims to build the world’s first full-size nuclear-fusion power plant. The power plant is under construction in the city of Cadarache in the South of France, at an estimated cost of around 15 billion euros. The objective of the plant is to produce more energy than is consumed, while the process is running.
Inside a Tokamak fusion reactor, magnetic-field reaction plasma will be heated up to 30 million degrees Centigrade. ITER Tokamak is supported by the largest cryogenic plant ever built. Large quantities of cryogenic helium are required in the plant.
In addition, a liquid-helium plant is already
Aggreko plc is the world’s largest temporary power generation company, and a major supplier of temperature-control equipment. Headquartered in Glasgow, Scotland, Aggreko provides power generation and temperature control solutions to customers who need them either very quickly or for a short length of time.
Minimising down time
The down times during unplanned maintenance or even planned equipment replacements can have great economic impact on any production process. Aggreko offers tailor-made temporary heating/cooling solutions for process industry to achieve uninterrupted production.
When a chemical plant in Europe was planning a major change in its existing condensation system, it contacted Aggreko’s Process Services Department (APS)
Aggreko plc is the world’s largest temporary power-generation company, and a major supplier of temperature-control equipment. Headquartered in Glasgow, Scotland, Aggreko provides power generation and temperature-control solutions to customers who need them either very quickly or for a short length of time.
With increasing ambient temperatures during the summer, the process operation conditions are changing for many industries. The ﬁrst effects of the high ambient temperatures can be seen mainly in cooling water systems and feed/product tanks, which can affect production rates signiﬁcantly.
A reﬁnery in Europe is cooling the hydrocarbon rundown stream with an effluent heat exchanger and afterwards with a water-cooled
Order number one was made on 30 July 2004, and at that time, Vahterus did not even have the ASME U-Stamp. From these very humble beginnings, the contractor, M&M Refrigeration, and end user, US Cold Storage (USCS), have become cornerstones of Vahterus Refrigeration in the USA, utilising many Vahterus Plate & Shell Heat Exchangers (PSHE), notably in CO2 /NH3 cascade systems. The key individuals involved on all sides are still involved today, and this is what has made the working relationship and collaboration between all parties so strong and long lasting.
Ole Christensen, Vice President of Engineering at M&M Refrigeration, had previously
Due to the increasing price of scarce fossil fuels, there is a worldwide focus on reducing energy consumption. This can be achieved through high efficiency technologies, renewable energies and decentralised power generation.
In Germany, a renewable energy law (EEG) was enacted in 2000. Since then, numerous projects in the sectors of solar, wind, biomass and even geothermal energy have been implemented. The proportion of renewable energy used should reach 20% of the total national energy supply by 2020. The law regulates the ﬁnancial return received for electrical energy that is produced by cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), for example.
Since the implementation of
At the end of 2009, technicians at DONG’s combined heat and power plant (acquired by VEKS in May 2012), in Köge, Denmark, contacted one of our distributors about the replacement of an existing heat exchanger.
Together, they found great potential for energy saving. For years, DONG and Junckers, to whom the former supplies steam, had lived with high ﬂash-steam leakage from various return pipes. By utilising this heat, signiﬁcant energy savings could be made. Junckers’ press facility uses steam, which is condensed and returned at 3 bar (g). Condensate, which comes from the presses, is collected in two large ﬂash vessels that
In the market, there is a need for special plate & shell hheat recovery units. In the future, more and more environmental limitations and regulations will need to be taken into consideration with new industrial installations. With the Vahterus EGE, we aim to fill a significant gap in heat exchanger markets.
In industrial processes, it is common that waste heat is generated in addition to actual process operations; in the past, the waste heat was dumped into the atmosphere with considerable losses in energy and costs. The Vahterus EGE unit offers a concrete solution to return waste heat to the process
With the experience of a 100 year-old energy producer, Pori Energia Oy produces electricity, district heat and process steam for the Pori region and its surroundings in western Finland. In addition to providing process steam for Boliden Harjavalta’s copper electrolysis, Pori Energia supplies UPM’s Seiku mill and Corenso’s cartong production from its Aittaluoto power plant in the centre of Pori city. In the north of the city, Pori Energia has a joint power plant with local industry. From the plant, electricity and steam are supplied to Sachtleben Pigments Oy.
A few years ago, Pori Energia was facing a decision. A thermal
The facility in Ningdong, approximately 900 kilometres west of Beijing, will become one of Asia’s largest industrial centres for the petrochemical reﬁning of mineral coal. The largest known mineral coal deposit of the Ningxia region is located in Ningdong, with an estimated capacity of 27 billion tons. The plan is to increase the capacity of industrial facilities, utilising the deposit to manufacture approximately 20 million tons of ready-made products annually in the next ten years.
One part of the project is a petrochemical factory manufacturing propylene (a component required when producing many plastic products) from methanol. The production unit will be opened
As the inventors and pioneers of Plate & Shell Heat Exchanger (PSHE) technology, Vahterus’ successes in the Offshore and Oil & Gas markets continue to form a critical part of the company’s development and fast-paced growth. With almost all oil majors now having some experience with PSHEs, applications and installations continue to grow exponentially.
Vahterus PSHE technology offers the user a small footprint and reduced weight, aligned with wide-ranging pressure and temperature capabilities. Traditionally, this industry would utilise tubular technology to perform many operations, notably high-pressure applications, but they now have a viable alternative with Vahterus PSHEs. Offshore, where space and weight
Oy Scancool Ab is one of Finland’s leading suppliers of refrigeration facilities. Last year, Scancool provided Oy Snellman Ab with a system where heat exchangers delivered by Vahterus play an important role. The objective of the project is to produce savings of up to EUR 100,000 in energy costs and reduce the environmental load. The most important objectives – the amount of recovered energy, temperatures and efficiency – have been achieved ‘even better than anticipated’, says Jonny Asplund, Managing Director of Scancool. ‘The system delivered by Scancool recovers heat from the industrial plant’s wastewater and uses it to heat the
Kisuma Chemicals produces high-purity synthetic magnesium compounds and is one the world’s largest manufacturers of synthetic hydrotalcite. It’s located in the northern part of the Netherlands and is a subsidiary of the Japanese Kyowa Group, the first company in the world to succeed in the industrial synthesis of hydrotalcite.
Vahterus’s representative, Kapp Netherlands, contacted us with an urgent request for two heat exchangers for Kisuma’s plant in the Netherlands. These product coolers would replace old spiral heat exchangers, which were broken and unable to support the production needs of the plant. The most critical issue was the delivery time. Installation of
Innovative Refrigeration Systems provides turnkey design and building services and industrial refrigeration systems. Vahterus has been the company’s partner in supplying heat exchangers since 2010. When its customer, United State Cold Storage, wanted to increase its blast-freezing capacity in the Dallas market, Innovative Refrigeration Systems looked to Vahterus for reliability of performance and delivery.
The fully welded structure of Vahterus Plate & Shell Heat Exchanger is known for its capacity to withstand high pressures. In this project, this capacity was really put to the test. The CO2 plant operated at much higher pressure than typical refrigeration systems, which usually function
In 1973, a volcano erupted on the island of Vestmannaeyjar, spreading lava over half the town. Sveinbjörn Jansson from Reykjavik came up with the idea of utilising the heat from the lava for space heating, creating the world’s first and only volcanic district heating system. By 1988, the heat from the lava had reduced, making it necessary to find alternative energy sources for residential heating.
Vahterus, together with Johnson Controls, helped the local energy company HS Veitur hf develop a 10 MW heat pump system to boost the district heating system, a closed loop solution, where after usage, water gets
Even if we get a rainy autumn, there will be at least one fully functioning ski track in Uusikaupunki – Vahterus Ring.
The 1 km long Vahterus Ring is the only ski tunnel in the world to use natural refrigerant in the form of carbon dioxide. The result of a snowless winter in Southwest Finland, it was completed in spring 2005.
Refrigeration units on both the north and south sides of the tunnel can be independently adjusted, for example when the spring sun warms the south side to a higher degree than the north. A tube runs 500 metres from
Orkla is the Nordic region’s leading player in brands and concept solutions for grocery retail and large households.
In 2004, Orkla acquired a Vahterus Plate & Shell Heat Exchanger (PSHE) with separate droplet separator for steam generation. Orkla had a very positive experience with the steam generator, which was in operation for more than ten years without any issues. When Orkla Foods Sweden needed an additional steam generator skid for its new vanilla cream production line, the company started to look at a new Vahterus exchanger, together with one of our local distributors in Sweden, Spirax Sarco.
The task for the new unit was
A few years ago, Vahterus visited one of the largest food producers in Kazakhstan. The company was facing a challenge in the deodorization process of its sunflower oil.
The brazed plate heat exchangers installed at the plant were struggling to handle the extreme temperature difference required by the deodorization process, leading to occasional leakages. Apart from a temperature difference of 130°C between the hot and cold oils on the inlets, there was also a requirement for the exchanger to handle close approach temperatures.
The customer decided to replace the old exchangers with Vahterus Plate & Shell Heat Exchangers, using them as
Since 2012, Pannonia Bio operates a biorefinery in Dunafoldvar, Hungary. The biorefinery is the largest ethanol plant in Europe, one of the most efficient refineries in the world, and has a mission to mitigate climate change.
According to Pannonia Bio, the production of bioethanol is one of the most cost-effective ways to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Since 2011, the average certified greenhouse-gas emission savings of renewable ethanol against fossil fuel have increased continuously, reaching 70% in 2017, reports ePure, an organisation that speaks for renewable ethanol producers in Europe.
Pannonia Bio is constantly improving its processes and is a nursery for the
A member of the Orion Group, Fermion is a Finnish manufacturer and developer of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) for Orion and other pharmaceutical companies around the world. With the special expertise and capacity to manufacture high-potency active pharmaceutical ingredients, Fermion is the global leader in some of the products it manufactures. Its plants are located in Hanko and Oulu, and its research and development facilities are in Espoo. The company’s turnover is EUR 84 million and it employs 320 people. Approximately 100 of these work in the Oulu plant.
Fermion’s chemical plant in Oulu manufactures pharmaceutical ingredients that are used in
A South Korean tyre manufacturing company has production facilities in Chongqing, China. The manufacturing process requires an air separator for discharging air. In the air separating process, the water supplied to the air separator is heated up to a saturated temperature using steam, and oxygen, carbon dioxide and other gases dissolved in the water are discharged in accordance with Dalton’s law of partial pressures.
In a typical case, there is a bleed valve and a pipe located above the air separator tank. Through them, gas and steam are discharged into the atmosphere in the form of vapour. This solution is
The production of alcohol amines requires large amounts of ethylene. A chemical plant in Eastern China specialises in alcohol amine production. Ethylene purchased from outside is stored at the plant as liquefied gas below –103°C. The production process, however, uses vaporised ethylene gas.
Before the recovery project, the ethylene was heated and vapourised using steam with methanol as the intermediate medium. Not only were large quantities of high-grade cold energy wasted, but the annual steam consumption was also enormous. The total capacity of ethylene vapourised was approximately 3,800 kW, which would cost about 8 million RMB (over one million Euros)
More than half of the platinum produced worldwide comes from South Africa, and Impala Platinum is the second largest platinum producer in the world. The company’s mines have several mineshafts that have been fitted with 69,000-kW ammonium cooling systems. The oldest cooling unit was installed in 1985, and the newest in 2002.
The mine’s primary cooling system is the surface cooling unit, while the secondary system involves channelling cooled service water underground. The water required by the secondary system is usually cooled during the night when the air temperature is lower and the surface cooling system is operating with a lower
Accent Refrigeration Systems of Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada, have been designing and manufacturing ammonia refrigeration systems for 30 years. The two major markets in which Accent specialise are high-efficiency refrigeration systems for the ice-skating industry and energy recovery heat pumps for a myriad of applications. By harvesting the large quantity of low-grade waste heat from community ice rinks to be used as a high-quality energy source on the evaporator side of energy-recovery heat pumps, Accent are able to produce exceptionally high COPs, resulting in very happy customers on both ends of the refrigeration spectrum. One great example of this
Founded in 1968, Pölkky is the largest privately owned wood-processing company in Northern Finland. The group’s sawmills and further processing plants are located in Taivalkoski and Kajaani in the heartland of Finnish raw wood, the municipality of Kuusamo. In 2017, Pölkky produced approximately 650,000 m2 of sawn timber with a group-wide turnover of €168 million. Modern wood-processing techniques and skilled personnel are the foundation of Pölkky’s high-quality products and efficient operations. In total, Pölkky Oy employs approximately 200 people. In addition to Pölkky, other companies in the group include Pölkky Metsä Kmo Oy, Kitkawood Oy and Kajaaniwood Oy with a
China is famous for its wide variety of culinary options and flavours. An important element in Chinese cooking is the oil in which the dishes are prepared. With 1.38 billion people’s appetites to satisfy, China is one of the biggest edible-oil refinery centres in the world. In the Tianjin area alone, 4,600 tons of soya beans are processed each day. The process in an edible-oil refinery includes four main steps: degumming, neutralisation, bleaching and deodorisation. Edible oil deodorisation is carried out on an industrial scale using different methods (continuous, semi-continuous or batchwise) with the process requiring the vegetable oil to
INERATEC packages compact chemical plants into containers, in which Fischer-Tropsch fuels and chemical materials are produced efficiently from various gases. Offering compact chemical systems for Gas-to-Liquid, Power-to-Liquid and Power-to-Gas processes, INERATEC utilises innovative technology, based on compact microstructured chemical reactors. These enable the integration of an entire chemical plant into transportable containers. Their compact reactor technology allows dynamic, safe and efficient operation of highly exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Significant competitive advantages arise due to the decentralised scale, with INERATEC providing services ranging from engineering and construction to the commissioning and maintenance of the units.
The thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions has been engineering and building nitrogenous fertiliser plants, based on technology developed by Uhde, for about 90 years, and is a leading supplier in this field. Since 1994 alone, thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions has provided new ammonia plants, which provide a total production capacity of over 14 million metric tons, as well as upgrading nine existing ammonia plants.
One of the key applications for thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions is urea plants. Urea is formed by reacting ammonia with carbon dioxide. The urea production process consists of synthesis, recirculation, evaporation, desorption, hydrolysis and granulation. Vahterus Plate & Shell technology
Omnia Limited is a manufacturer of chemicals and specialist products for the chemical, mining and agricultural industries.
The Omnia industrial complex is situated in Sasolburg, Free State, in South Africa, and consists of a nitric acid plant, ammonium nitrate (liquid) plant and porous ammonium nitrate (solids) plant.
Within this complex, the most important and primary feedstock for the production of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate, is ammonia. Omnia’s nitrate and ammonium plants in Sasolburg are supplied with imported ammonia and Omnia operate an ammonia off-loading station in Richard’s Bay, KwaZulu-Natal North, a few kilometres from the Richards Bay Harbor.
E.ON, one of the world’s largest investor-owned electric utility service providers, installed four GEA heat pumps, each with a heating capacity of 10 MW (1 MW = approx. 2,500 homes) next to the sewage treatment and waste incinerator plant in Malmö’s harbour area. The heat-pump system draws nearly 30 MW of heat from the sewage water. Previously sent directly to the sea as waste heat, the energy is now harvested from the clean wastewater before it is returned to the sea. On average, the wastewater is chilled from 14 °C to 8 °C and the energy harvested is used to
Colonial Pipeline, headquartered in Alpharetta, Georgia, is the largest US refined products pipeline system and can carry more than three million barrels of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel between the US Gulf Coast and the New York Harbor area. The company was founded in 1961 and construction of the pipeline began in 1962. The pipeline is 5,500 miles (8,850 km) long. Colonial own the pipeline but no gasoline; they act as a carrier (just like DHL or UPS).
The pipeline, originating at Houston, Texas, on the Gulf Coast and terminating at the Port of New York and New Jersey, travels